The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected millions of people worldwide, of which 5% required intensive care, especially mechanical ventilation. The prognosis depends on several factors including comorbidities. This study was conducted to identify the comorbidities associated with the intensive care unit (ICU) admission in elderly with COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary Academic hospital. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at KSUMC including all hospitalized patients (age ≥ 65 years) with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection admitted between March 2020 and August 2021. Data collection included sociodemographic characteristics, underlying comorbidities, and the Charlson comorbidity index. Comorbidities were compared between the elderly patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU and those not admitted to the ICU. The odds ratios were calculated and a P value of < .05 and 95% confidence intervals were used to report the statistical significance A total of 444 patients (ICU = 147, non-ICU = 297) were included in the study. The study revealed that elderly patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU had a higher rate of mortality (n = 64, 67.4%; P < .0001) and a higher proportion of them had shortness of breath (n = 97, 38.3%; P = .007) compared to the elderly patients not admitted to ICU. The mean length of stay (P < .0001), and weight (P = .02) among ICU patients were higher than the values for the non-ICU group, while the mean oxygen saturation (SpO2; P = .006) was lower among the ICU group. The comorbidities that demonstrated a statistically significant association with ICU admission were heart failure (P = .004, odd ratio (OR) = 2.02, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [1.263, 3540]), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; P = .027, OR = 3.361, 95% CI [1.080, 10.464]), and chronic kidney disease (P = .021, OR = 1.807, 95% CI [1.087, 3.006]). The current study identified that the comorbidities such as COPD, heart failure, and factors like SpO2 and length of stay are associated with an increased risk of ICU admission in elderly patients with COVID-19. These findings highlight the clinical implications of comorbidity among geriatric population.

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Comorbidities associated with risk of ICU admission in elderly patients with COVID-19: Data from academic hospital in Saudi Arabia

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