The study aims to construct and validate a rubric to assess the effectiveness of PLEs from an Academic administrative perspective (PLER-AA) in tertiary education in China. A qualitative-quantitative sequential mixed-method design was used for the scale validation. A total of 206 teachers and administrative staff participated in the Confirmative Factor Analysis (CFA), which supported the 4-dimensional scale, with policy (n = 4), program design (n = 4), curriculum/instruction (n = 4), and capacity (n = 4). Meanwhile, another 189 teachers and administrative staff participated in the current sequence of PLE applications in higher education surveys, revealing a developing phase in China. Consequently, the rubric can be used as a benchmark that provides insight to educators and administrators in developing PLEs in tertiary education in China and worldwide.

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Development and validation of a PLE scale from academic administrative perspective (PLES-AA) in tertiary education: A pilot study in China

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