Urology has rapidly evolved during the last decades, incorporating new technologies faster than most specialties. The challenge to maintain a competent workforce that is prepared to deliver proper contemporary treatment has become increasingly difficult and newly graduated urologists throughout the world typically lack the skills to practice many urological subspecialties. We performed a survey to evaluate the practice patterns and educational aspirations in functional urology (FU) among Brazilian urologists.


A web-based survey was sent to board-certified Brazilian urologists to collect data on clinical practice and training aspirations in four subareas of FU: female urology, urodynamics, postprostatectomy incontinence (PPI), and neurourology. We evaluated urologists’ clinical and surgical workload in each subarea and investigated educational training aspirations to identify areas and training formats of interest.


A total of 366 urologists (mean age 47.7 + 10.7 years) completed the survey. Mean time since completion of residency was 17.9 + 11.9 years. Of the respondents, 176 (53%) perform urodynamics, 285 (83.1%) SUI surgeries, 159 (47.6%) PPI surgeries, 194 (58.1%) third line OAB procedures, 168 (48.9%) pelvic organ prolapse (POP), and 88 (26.3%) bladder augmentation. Mid-urethral sling is the most performed SUI surgery and transobturator is the preferred route (64.0%). For those performing POP surgery, 40.5% use mesh in at least 50% of their cases, and the vaginal route is used in most cases (75.4%) for apical prolapse. For PPI, 64.6% use artificial sphincter in most surgeries and only 8.1% perform at least 5 surgeries/year. Being fellowship-trained and working in an Academic hospital are associated with a higher chance of being active in FU. Most urologists are interested in receiving training in PPI, female SUI, and POP and a hands-on course is the preferred educational method (81%).


Most urologists in Brazil are involved in the evaluation and treatment of FU patients, but few have a large volume of patient visits and surgical procedures. Completing a fellowship program and working in an Academic practice are associated with a higher chance of being a FU practitioner. There is a high interest in training for PPI, female SUI, and POP.


education; female urology; functional urology; medical; neuro-urology; urinary incontinence; urodynamics; urology training.

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Functional urology: Practice patterns and training aspirations among urologists in Brazil

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