Metabolome is the end point of the genome-environment interplay, and enables an important holistic overview of individual adaptability and host responses to environmental, ecological, as well as endogenous changes such as disease. Pharmacometabolomics is the application of metabolome knowledge to decipher the mechanisms of interindividual and intraindividual variations in drug efficacy and safety. Pharmacometabolomics also contributes to prediction of drug treatment outcomes on the basis of baseline (predose) and postdose metabotypes through mathematical modeling. Thus, pharmacometabolomics is a strong asset for a diverse community of stakeholders interested in theory and practice of evidence-based and precision/personalized medicine: Academic researchers, public health scholars, health professionals, pharmaceutical, diagnostics, and biotechnology industries, among others. In this expert review, we discuss pharmacometabolomics in four contexts: (1) an interdisciplinary omics tool and field to map the mechanisms and scale of interindividual variability in drug effects, (2) discovery and development of translational biomarkers, (3) advance digital biomarkers, and (4) empower drug repurposing, a field that is increasingly proving useful in the current era of Covid-19. As the applications of pharmacometabolomics are growing rapidly in the current postgenome era, next-generation proteomics and metabolomics follow the example of next-generation sequencing analyses. Pharmacometabolomics can also empower data reliability and reproducibility through multiomics integration strategies, which use each data layer to correct, connect with, and inform each other. Finally, we underscore here that contextual data remain crucial for precision medicine and drug development that stand the test of time and clinical relevance.


drug development; drug repurposing; multiomics; pharmacometabolomics; precision medicine; translational biomarkers.

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Pharmacometabolomics-Based Translational Biomarkers: How to Navigate the Data Ocean

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